The World Health Organization defines obesity as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health In obesity evaluated based on the gender, women have a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 20 to 30 or more and men have a BMI of 25 or more.
To define obesity more comprehensively, we can say it is a condition that causes abnormal fat accumulation in the person’s body, leading to the a great variety of diseases in later stages, which arises due to conditions under which environmental, social, economic and genetic factors pave the way for it. This condition may also lead to different types of chronic diseases, and may result in death. The distribution of fat accumulation caused by obesity in the body is very important in terms of the risks that it will cause in the later stages. Excess fat accumulation in the trunk and abdominal region rather than in the arms and legs carries a risk in terms of metabolic syndrome (a group of diseases including risk factors that considerably increase the likelihood of having a heart attack).
According to the data provided by the World Health Organization, the number of obese people has doubled in the 20th and 21st centuries. These data show that people aged 20 years and over are obese, while the current data obtained today show that children under 5 years of age are also overweight and obese. Obesity, which used to be defined as a disease of developed countries in the past years, is now considered as a major disease problem even in undeveloped countries.
Obesity that affects a person’s life expectancy and poses a significant threat to his or her health is considered to be the most risky factor as a cause of death. More than 3 million people die each year as a result of being overweight or obese. Obesity, which is a preventable and curable disease, can be prevented by improving improper eating habits, genetic factors, hormonal disorders, and physical activities.
In the treatment process, the person’s body mass index (BMI) is calculated and the ratio of weight to height square meter is then taken into account. If the BMI is 40 kg/m2 and above, the person is considered to be obese at the level of disease, and the treatment is started based on this ratio. Body mass index is calculated by dividing the body weight in kilograms by height in meters squared.
Body Mass Index (BMI)= Body Weight (kg) / Square of Height (m)
In the data obtained based on the body mass index;
Below 18.5 kg/m2: Weak
Between 18.5 – 24.9 kg/m2: Normal Weight
Between 25 – 29.9 kg/m2: Overweight
Between 30 – 34.9 kg/m2: Obese Class I
Between 35 – 34.9 kg/m2: Obese Class II
Over 40 kg/m2: Obese Class III